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Typical mistakes of shabashniki in the process of building a wooden house. Or what to expect from unscrupulous contractors. (part 2) - Manuel Wood Crafts
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Typical mistakes of shabashniki in the process of building a wooden house. Or what to expect from unscrupulous contractors. (part 2)

Despite the emergence of the latest building materials, log cottages and country houses are still popular. At the same time, with a low professional level of builders, the shortcomings of natural material appear, which reduce the comfort of living in the house and lead to the destruction of wooden structures. There are typical mistakes made at different stages of construction – from foundation work to installation.

Foundation

First, the dimensions of the log house and the future foundation should be agreed. If you do not carry out the layout according to the project, then even with a minimal mismatch of the axes, the walls deviate from the design positions, bending moments arise.

Before installing the log house, the flatness of the concrete foundation must be monitored: according to SNiP, the deviation from the plane over its entire area cannot exceed 2 cm. Because of this, the load on different sections of the supporting structures becomes unequal, distortions appear. The surface of the foundation must be checked by level.

Horizontal waterproofing

The foundation is covered with a waterproof film to protect the frame from capillary moisture infiltration. For horizontal waterproofing, it is best to lay roofing material in two layers. Sometimes inexperienced builders use hydroglass insol, which collapses after six months.

Underlay boards

They are mounted for additional protection of the base rims from moisture and to facilitate the replacement of the lower tier during a major overhaul of the house. A mistake is the use of aspen or birch boards: according to SNiP, only durable larch or pine wood, impregnated with an antiseptic at the factory (under pressure), is suitable for this.

Inspection of workpieces before assembly

The main controlled parameter is humidity, the average value of which should be a maximum of 15%. At a higher index, deformations often occur, therefore, before assembly, it is imperative to check the dimensions of the workpieces and their deviations from the shape. Parts that do not correspond to the design dimensions are discarded.

Protective wood treatment

If you ignore the impregnation with antiseptics, then a fungus appears on the surface of wooden parts, and internal stresses arise inside the logs, which ultimately lead to deformations. It is best to impregnate the logs with an antifungal solution before assembling the log house: if you do this after installation, the solution does not get into inaccessible places. An oval groove in a rounded log after laying the next crown is almost impossible to process properly.

Thermal insulation

It is erroneous to insulate the mezhventsovy cracks with mineral wool, which instantly absorbs atmospheric moisture and leads to decay of the logs. Moss as insulation is simply dangerous: it is highly flammable. The best option for caulking is a natural jute heat insulator. But it is better to insulate the roof with mineral wool, which is a non-combustible material.

Docking along the length and corners

The most popular with manufacturers are 6-meter logs, which have to be connected to obtain walls of the design length. Competent builders perform docking in cross-sections – the locations of transverse walls or decorative details. Conjugation of logs in the corners is carried out in various ways. At the same time, it is important to observe the shape of the samples and the necessary clearances in order to maintain the strength of the logs and compensate for shrinkage.

Connection of crowns to each other

It is optimal to use wooden dowels, the shrinkage of which is parallel to the walls. If steel pins are hammered into the logs, this leads to the hanging of the crowns and the formation of cracks.

Roof

An essential feature of roofing work is the use of layered rafters with sliding fasteners. This helps to protect the roof from sagging and the walls from deformation. Elements of the rafter system must be treated with fire retardant solutions of prolonged action. The lathing is arranged so as not to interfere with the free movement of air under the roof.

Miscalculations in the process of erecting a wooden house sometimes not only reduce its service life, but also lead to the inevitability of a complete disassembly of the structure, replacement of most parts and further re-installation. To build a reliable home, you should be guided by a project, conclude an agreement with experienced professionals and control all stages of the process.

The first part of the article “Typical mistakes when designing a wooden house. Or what to expect from unscrupulous contractors (part 1)”.

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